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雅思阅读5大核心题型英语美文网

来源:情文学小说网   时间: 2020-10-19

对雅思阅读的题型烂熟于心,是备考雅思阅读的基本要求。今天小编给大家带来了雅思阅读5大核心题型,希望能帮助到大家,下面小编就和大家分享,来欣赏一下吧。

雅思阅读5大核心题型就这样被你征服

1.信息段落配对题

雅思阅读中的段落信息配对题一直是同学们取得高分的拦路虎。我们先来分析一下这种题型的特点和难点。配对题考察的重点只有一个,那就是同义替换。配对题看似简单,因为只要找到信息在那一段落就可以了,不需要像判断题那样的深度

理解和逻辑判断。但是,尤其对于阅读功底不强的同学,这种题目非常棘手。同学们会发现有的题目和原文对应的出题句样子长的一点都不一样,没有任何一个词是原词出现,但他们确实表达的一个意思。例如,剑桥雅思4第三套题第三篇文章中的配对题28题,题目是the importance of taking notes of body language,文中对应的句子却是the recording has to be supplemented by the observer’swritten comments of the non-verbal behavior of the participants. 这两个句子没有一个词是一样的,但细心的同学能发现很明显的三组同义替换那就是重要性、肢体语言、做笔记。因为配对题改写严重的特点,配对题的定位词很难确定,许多在判断题中不会改写的名词在配对题中也被改的面目全非。再加上配对题的出题顺序没有任何规律可言,还经常出现NB----一个段落里包含两个题目信息,所以这种题型蒙对的概率非常低。原则上来讲,配对题每做一道题都需要全文通读,因为每一题都可能在文中的任何位置。

配对题的难度是显而易见的,但是再难的题,我们也能把握其出题规律,找到最高效、快捷的做出尽可能多答案的方法。这种题在考场上我们肯定是没有时间去读很多遍文章的,我们必须做到文章读一遍,所有的题目就处理完了。绝大多数的配对题都是细节题,因此我们都要从题目入手,找到关键词。又由于名词也可能被替换成其他词,所以我们要采用多点撒网,重点抓鱼的策略,把题目中所有的信息词(包括名词、动词、形容词和副词)都划下来,同时记住题目的整体意思。做题过程中,阅读功底不强的同学,可以采取只用扫读的方法,没扫一段或者几句话就回到题目中看看有没有出现所划的信息词。有出现信息词,适当对这句话做点精读,一般答案就可以确定了。阅读功底强的同学,可以采取用略读加扫读的方法,在读懂段落句子大意的同时注意是否有原词出现,发现意思相近或原词出现,适当做精读确定答案。但不管阅读功底强和不强的同学,大家都要记住一个原则:做题的时候要心静,要特别细致,做到能够确定自己没读的一句话确实有或者没有题目信息。这样读完一遍文章后,我们就把自己能做的题都做出来了,做不出来的题我们再回头读很多遍也还是做不出来的,因为只要过程做的仔细,做不出来的题目就是我们不认识的替换,看再多遍也是不能帮助我们确定答案的。

2、标题对应题

List of Heading也就是我们大家熟悉的标题题了。这种题型是唯一一种出现在文章前面的题型。而且,这种题是一种考察文章大意的题型而不是细节题。标题题由两部分组成,一部分是选项,另外一部分是一个段落编号,我们要做的也就是给每个段落找一个小标题。所对应的段落也分为两种情况,一种是所考察的section包含若干个小分段;另一种则只包含一个小段。

标题题是一种高频题型,平均每两次考试会出现一次,有时甚至连续出现。然而,此种题型比较难,是乱序题,而且要求考生总结段落大意,对学生来说要求较高。

List of Heading解题步骤

划去选项中的例子,以及原文中例子所对应段落的序号这种题型有的时候会给例子,有的时候没有例子在剩余的选项中划取关键词关键词应尽量划取名词以及形容词注意是否有相似或相反的标题,若有则至少有一个会是正确答案扫读并总结文章所考查的每个section的中心思想重点看所考查小段的第一句,第二句和最后一句,划出主题句的关键词段落中间部分快速浏览即可对应两组关键词,以确定答案

注意事项乱序性,即正确答案在原文中无顺序可言有简单有难,有的答案一目了然,有的答案却反复推敲都难以确认着重注意转折,并列等连接词适当运用排除法,越到最后就越要应用该法答案不会出现重复使用现象,每个选项只会使用一次做出一道题就划去一道题正确答案具有概括性与总结性干扰项一般是一些小细节,新概念段落高频词理论一段话中反复出现的名词或形容词当一个文章段落在10行以内时,出现2次及为高频词,当一个文章段落在11行以上时,出现3次即为高频词。

3.选择题

I 雅思阅读选择题的题型特点:

a.考察内容细节

除了通常位于文章末尾的multiple choice 题型考察考生对全文大意的理解之外,其余的都是要建立在对文章细节的理解之上的。

b.多项选择题答案集中

多项选择题的答案大都是出现在1-2个小段之内(最多不超过4段)。所以考生只要定位到了相关的段落并进行略读,根据题干要求找到答案。

c.选择项以同义转换为表现形式

选择题的选项部分,通常是将文章的语言进行近义词或同义句形式进行转换。

II 雅思阅读选择题的做题原则:

A.阅读题干,划出定位词

由于选择题考察细节的特点,故题干中的词往往能够提供定位,方便考生在文章中把所对应的句子或段落找出来。

例:In the first paragraph the writer makes the point that blind people (剑4,Test 1, Q27)

这道题目中,明显有两处定位:一处是first paragraph,另一处是blind people,故只需要在第一段找到blind people,就能找出题目所对应的句子了。

但并不是所有的多项选择题都会明确地告知范围。

例:Which THREE of the following statements are true of Johnson’s Dictionary? (剑5 Test 1 Q1-3)因为文章的题目就叫Johnson’s Dictionary,故这道题目根本没有定位词。那么这种题目很难下手,建议放到最后来做。把其它的题目都做完之后,再根据其选项大致推测出所在文章的范围。

B.阅读选项,划出核心词

贺州哪里能治好癫痫ndent: 2em; text-align: left;">因为选项提供了对原文正确或者是错误的同义转换,所以在寻找正确答案之前,一定要事先通读选项。

C.定位相关句子段落

由于选择项的干扰性往往很强,所以对找到的相关句子或段落一定要进行仔细阅读,排除错误选项。甄别干扰项这一步骤是考生解题的关键,很多考生在往往对几个选项犹豫不决,经常跳进题目的陷阱。一般说来,干扰项有如下几个类别:

①相似陷阱

如果题目中出现的个别单词与原文中的用词一模一样,尤其是一些经常被同义

替换掉的动词、形容词等,这个选项很有可能是干扰选项,考生应仔细对比分析其

它选项,避免因匆忙下结论,得出错误答案。

②偷换概念陷阱

有时在是中,选项中虽然与文中有对应或相似的词或表达,但选项中偷换了关键性的成分(如谓语部分),使得答案表达错误。

③搭配不当陷阱

这种选项的特点是:选项本身是正确的,但是跟题干却不能形成搭配关系。

4、判断题

雅思阅读有所谓的“小三理论”,就是大家在做雅思阅读的时候,需要注意的三种素质:首先是三看,做题之前,标题、插图和每段的第一句话必须得看,把文章的主要思想和每段的大致重点把握个十有八九,这样做题的时候才有分寸;其次是三力,三种能力分别是4000-6000左右的词汇量和高中的语法能力;一般以上的常识判断能力;以及具备一定的逻辑推理能力;最后是三度,分别指的是划关键词的准确度、回原文定位的速度和对同义词替换的敏感度。烤鸭们可以参照各自的做题经验,找到属于自己的短板和瓶颈,再有针对性的做一些专项训练。

现在主要说说所谓逻辑推理能力。这一概念乍一听有些玄,其实实质内容很好理解,就是涉及到阅读文章的题目和原文的复合句中的连词和介词短语影射出来的两句话或两个短语之间的逻辑关系,即两者是方向一致(均为positive或均为negative),抑或方向相反。具体的表现方式为:

并列、递进(and/or; also/besides/in addition/furthermore)连接两句话,逻辑方向一致;转折、让步(but/however/whereas/yet; although/even if/though/while/despite/in spite of)连接两句话,逻辑方向相反;因果(because/for/as/since/due to/owing to/originate from/result from; so/therefore/as a result/as a consequence/result in/lead to/cause/contribute to)逻辑方向一致。

实例讲解:Eg:1.剑4 P45 Q10 Lost for Words判断题干S:The Navajo language will die out because it currently has too few speakers.(下划线为关键词)原文P: Navajo is considered endangered despite having 150000 speakers.

解析:原文的表示让步的介词despite 为解题关键,前半部分说Navajo这种语言面临灭绝危险,逻辑方向为负向,即为negative;despite将方向逆转,则说明后半部分“having 150000 speakers”中的150000说此种语言的人数是很多的,同题干中的too few矛盾,固答案为FALSE.此题如果没有despite的转折作用,150000的数量因为没有相对的比照和参考,我们是无法判断到底是多还是少的。

5.归纳填空题

归纳填空题是雅思考试阅读理解部分的一线题型,几乎每回考试必有。在阅读理解的诸多题型中,此类题型可以应用的方法技巧较多,若能掌握好这些技巧方法,并将其组合起来,视情况灵活运用的话,归纳填空应该被视作为考生得分的一块宝地。朗阁雅思培训专家在此总结了此类题型解题的一些方法,供考生们参考。

归纳填空题的答题要求分为两类:1. 用原文中的原词填空,有字数的限制,例如不超过二或三个词;2. 从所提供的单词表中选词填空。下文在介绍解题方法时,对这两类答题要求分别简称为1或2。

a 短文全文大意的帮助

首先把短文的全文迅速通读一遍,掌握大意。不要在没有掌握全文大意的情况下立即做题,看一句填一句。虽然短文的词数不多,但作为一篇文章,总有一定的主体思想,句与句之间意思上是相连的,整篇短文就是一个有机的整体。通读全文,有利于掌握文章的逻辑思维,顺着思路选词来填,就比较容易做对了。许多考生往往不先通读短文全文,上来就匆忙去找词填空。看似快,实际上选词时看来看去,思前想后,犹豫不决,不知选哪个才对,反而大大减慢了速度。

b 利用信号词来定位和定词

归纳填空题的形式为一篇短文,文中有若干个空,要求考生在其中填词。空格前后往往会有信号词,我们可以借助之在原文中定位,再在所定位部位的附近范围内找出该采用的原文原词(对于1)或断定该填的单词表中的同义词(对于2)。不少情况下,在空格前和后的信号词,相对应地也是出现在原文中正确的词的前和后的,前后信号词的“夹击”下,更方便我们选对词了。所以信号词技巧也仍然是这种题的重要技巧。

c 空格前后的上下文的帮助

空格肯定是处于句子中的,亦即所谓空格无非是一个句子抽掉了其中的某个词(语)所形成的。因此,在整篇短文大意的大背景下,再考虑空格前后的上下文意思,然后将在1或2中备选的数个词(语)进行比对,就不难确定该填入哪个了。空格前后上下文的意义与全篇短文主体思想的结合分析,在决定选词上尤为重要,注意运用这点,能使我们做题快许多。

d 语法知识的帮助

一些基本的语法知识对于我们确定词性范围甚或选定具体的词都有直截了当的决定作用,又简单又快。空格前后的词往往都提示了空格中的词是何种词性,是否比较级,谓语或非谓语,单数还是复数,及物动词或不及物动词,等等。例如,空格之前是a的话,表明空格该填的是个可数名词的单数形式,而且该名词的发音是以辅音音标开头的(否则,空格前的a就该是an了)。

雅思考试阅读模拟练习及答案

new weapon to fight cancer

<秦皇岛羊羔疯要治疗多久p style="text-indent: 2em; text-align: left;">1. British scientists are preparing to launch trials of a radical new way to fight cancer, which kills tumours by infecting them with viruses like the common cold.

2. If successful, virus therapy could eventually form a third pillar alongside radiotherapy and chemotherapy in the standard arsenal against cancer, while avoiding some of the debilitating side-effects.

3. Leonard Seymour, a professor of gene therapy at Oxford University, who has been working on the virus therapy with colleagues in London and the US, will lead the trials later this year. Cancer Research UK said yesterday that it was excited by the potential of Prof Seymour’s pioneering techniques.

4. One of the country’s leading geneticists, Prof Seymour has been working with viruses that kill cancer cells directly, while avoiding harm to healthy tissue. "In principle, you’ve got something which could be many times more effective than regular chemotherapy," he said.

5. Cancer-killing viruses exploit the fact that cancer cells suppress the body’s local immune system. "If a cancer doesn’t do that, the immune system wipes it out. If you can get a virus into a tumour, viruses find them a very good place to be because there’s no immune system to stop them replicating. You can regard it as the cancer’s Achilles’ heel."

6. Only a small amount of the virus needs to get to the cancer. "They replicate, you get a million copies in each cell and the cell bursts and they infect the tumour cells adjacent and repeat the process," said Prof Seymour.

7. Preliminary research on mice shows that the viruses work well on tumours resistant to standard cancer drugs. "It’s an interesting possibility that they may have an advantage in killing drug-resistant tumours, which could be quite different to anything we’ve had before."

8. Researchers have known for some time that viruses can kill tumour cells and some aspects of the work have already been published in scientific journals. American scientists have previously injected viruses directly into tumours but this technique will not work if the cancer is inaccessible or has spread throughout the body.

9. Prof Seymour’s innovative solution is to mask the virus from the body’s immune system, effectively allowing the viruses to do what chemotherapy drugs do - spread through the blood and reach tumours wherever they are. The big hurdle has always been to find a way to deliver viruses to tumours via the bloodstream without the body’s immune system destroying them on the way.

10. "What we’ve done is make chemical modifications to the virus to put a polymer coat around it - it’s a stealth virus when you inject it," he said.

11. After the stealth virus infects the tumour, it replicates, but the copies do not have the chemical modifications. If they escape from the tumour, the copies will be quickly recognised and mopped up by the body’s immune system.

12. The therapy would be especially useful for secondary cancers, called metastases, which sometimes spread around the body after the first tumour appears. "There’s an awful statistic of patients in the west ... with malignant cancers; 75% of them go on to die from metastases," said Prof Seymour.

13. Two viruses are likely to be examined in the first clinical trials: adenovirus, which normally causes a cold-like illness, and vaccinia, which causes cowpox and is also used in the vaccine against smallpox. For safety reasons, both will be disabled to make them less pathogenic in the tr铁岭癫痫病治疗哪好,原来是这里ial, but Prof Seymour said he eventually hopes to use natural viruses.

14. The first trials will use uncoated adenovirus and vaccinia and will be delivered locally to liver tumours, in order to establish whether the treatment is safe in humans and what dose of virus will be needed. Several more years of trials will be needed, eventually also on the polymer-coated viruses, before the therapy can be considered for use in the NHS. Though the approach will be examined at first for cancers that do not respond to conventional treatments, Prof Seymour hopes that one day it might be applied to all cancers.

(665 words)

Questions 1-6

Do the following statements agree with the information given in the reading passage? For questions 1-6 write

TRUE if the statement agrees with the information

FALSE if the statement contradicts the information

NOT GIVEN if there is no information on this in the passage

1.Virus therapy, if successful, has an advantage in eliminating side-effects.

2.Cancer Research UK is quite hopeful about Professor Seymour’s work on the virus therapy.

3.Virus can kill cancer cells and stop them from growing again.

4.Cancer’s Achilles’ heel refers to the fact that virus may stay safely in a tumor and replicate.

5.To infect the cancer cells, a good deal of viruses should be injected into the tumor.

6.Researches on animals indicate that virus could be used as a new way to treat drug-resistant tumors.

Question 7-9

Based on the reading passage, choose the appropriate letter from A-D for each answer.

7.Information about researches on viruses killing tumor cells can be found

(A) on TV

(B) in magazines

(C) on internet

(D) in newspapers

8.To treat tumors spreading out in body, researchers try to

(A) change the body’ immune system

(B) inject chemotherapy drugs into bloodstream.

(C) increase the amount of injection

(D) disguise the viruses on the way to tumors.

9.When the chemical modified virus in tumor replicates, the copies

(A) will soon escape from the tumor and spread out.

(B) will be wiped out by the body’s immune system.

(C) will be immediately recognized by the researchers.

(D) will eventually stop the tumor from spreading out.

Questions 10-13

Complete the sentences below. Choose your answers from the list of words. You can only use each word once.

NB There are more words in the list than spaces so you will not use them all.

长沙好的癫痫医院在哪里e="text-indent: 2em; text-align: left;">In the first clinical trials, scientists will try to ……10…… adenovirus and vaccinia, so both the viruses will be less pathogenic than the ……11…….These uncoated viruses will be applied directly to certain areas to confirm safety on human beings and the right ……12…… needed. The experiments will firstly be ……13……to the treatment of certain cancers

List of Words

dosage responding smallpox virus

disable natural ones inject

directed treatment cold-like illness

kill patients examined

Answers Keys:

1.答案:FALSE (见第2段:If successful, virus therapy could eventually form a third pillar alongside radiotherapy and chemotherapy in the standard arsenal against cancer, while avoiding some of the debilitating side-effects. Virus therapy 只能避免一些副作用,而不是根除。)

2.答案:TRUE (见第3段,特别是最后一句: Cancer Research UK said yesterday that it was excited by the potential of Prof Seymour’s pioneering techniques. )

3. 答案:NOT GIVEN (文中没有提到virus可以抑制肿瘤细胞再生长)

4. 答案:TRUE (见第5段第3、4句: 这里“cancer’s Achilles’ heel”指 “If you can get a virus into a tumour, viruses find them a very good place to be because there’s no immune system to stop them replicating.” Achilles’ heel的意思是“唯一致命弱点”)

5. 答案:FALSE (见第6段第第1句:Only a small amount of the virus needs to get to the cancer.)

6. 答案:TRUE (见第7段:Preliminary research on mice shows that the viruses work well on tumours resistant to standard cancer drug. ……, which could be quite different to anything we’ve had before." )

7. 答案:B (见第8段第1、2句:Researchers have known for some time that viruses can kill tumour cells and some aspects of the work have already been published in scientific journals. Journal意思是“日报、期刊、杂志”)

8. 答案:D (见第9段第1句:Prof Seymour’s innovative solution is to mask the virus from the body’s immune system, …… “mask”的意思是“掩盖、隐蔽、伪装”, 在这里和 “disguise”同义。)

9. 答案:B (见第11段第2句: If they escape from the tumour, the copies will be quickly recognised and mopped up by the body’s immune system.. “mop up”这里与 “wipe out” 同义,意思是“消灭、歼灭”。)

10.答案:disable (见第13段最后1句:For safety reasons, both will be disabled to make them less pathogenic in the trial, but Prof Seymour said he eventually hopes to use natural viruses. )

11. 答案:natural ones (见第13段最后1句:For safety reasons, both will be disabled to make them less pathogenic in the trial, but Prof Seymour said he eventually hopes to use natural viruses. )

12. 答案:dosage (见第14段第1句:The first trials will use uncoated adenovirus and vaccinia and will be delivered locally to liver tumours, in order to establish whether the treatment is safe in humans and what dose of virus will be needed.)

13. 答案:directed (见第14段最后1句:Though the approach will be examined at first for cancers that do not respond to conventional treatments, …)


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长难句也一直让大家很头疼,到底长难句应该如何解析,今天

很多雅思考生都有这样的问题,即正式雅思阅读考试过程中

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